AOA Wa RABHU
How can the 3 calipahs be automatically responsible for Karbala when Abu Sufyan wanted an alliance with Imam Ali to fight against Abu Bakr and Umar ?
Punch line is that He WANTED to create a big Fitna, which Hazrat Ali (a.s.) turned down. The fact is that Abu Sufiyan first came to Imam Ali (a.s.), and offered his allegiance, but Imam Ali (a.s.), replied to him that you have come to me not with an intention to support Imamat, but with an intention to create a bigger Fitna, so go away.
Now, what's interesting that the mainstream do not ponder that Abu Sufiyan after getting a negative response from Imam Ali (a.s.), went to same Abu Bakr & Umar, and made a deal that Hijaz should be in control of first two caliphs, while He should be given the control of Shaam and they must appoint his Son Muwaih as a governor. It's a very cruicial moment in history, but mostly mainstream is ignoring such a vital deal, which is openly mentioned in the books of history that Abu Sufiyan was turned down by Imam Ali (a.s.), but Abu Bakr and Umar complimented him through a shared power deal, and gave the family a powerful role in their cabinet. Ignoring such unquesitonable authority and power given to the family of Abu Sufiyan by the first two caliphs and further strengthened by the third one, you can't keep them out of the court of utlimate accountability, as the very seed planted in Damascus by these first three caliphs, eventually led to a brutal outcome in Karbala. All of them must pay the price in the court of Allah (swt).
'Ali said, "I will tell you that everyone appointed by 'Umar b. al- Khattab was kept under close scrutiny by him.253 If (Umar) heard a single word concerning him he would flog him, then punish him with the utmost severity. But you do not do (that). You have been weak and easygoing with your relatives." "They are your relatives as well," answered Uthman. 'Ali said, "By my life, they are closely related to me indeed, but merit is found in others." Uthman said, "Do you know that Umar kept Mu'awiyah in of- fice throughout his entire caliphate, and I have only done the same." 'Ali answered, "I adjure you by God, do you know that Mu'awiyah was more afraid of Umar than was Umar's own slave Yarfa'?" "Yes," said (Uthman). 'Ali went on, "In fact Mu'awiyah makes decisions on issues without (consulting) you, and you know it. Thus, he says to the people. 'This is Uthman's com- mand.' You hear of this, but do not censure him."254 Then 'Ali left him, and Uthman went out on his heels.
Reference: History of Tabari, Vol.15, Page 140,State University of Newyork Press
There are more supportive arguments available in favor of Muwiah in the history books, but the question remains the same;
Did Mawiah ever face the court of accountability during the rein of first three calips ?
The above historical reference becomes Nullified in front of the widely quoted reference of Imam Ali (a.s.), when he ordered Mawiah's replacement in the beginning of his worldly Caliphate ruling. It shows that the actual justice demanded Muawiah's immediate removal from the post of governorship, which the first three calips avoided and ultimately it resulted in the following:
1. Musilms considered offering Friday Prayers on Wednesday as valid because Muawiah
2. Focusing on Hadith traditions nourished in Muawiahs time than referring to Al Quran and avoiding questions to those who are above in Knowledge (Rasikhoon- fil Ilm), because of Muawiah's propaganda
2. War of Safeen happened because of Muawiah
3. Yazeed became ruler of Muslim world
4. Outcome of Karbala
All the above and many more damaging outcomes were mainly because of the reason that Abu Sufiyan, Muwiah and other corrupt Ummayads were supported by first three caliphs.
Unfortunately, the mainstream Muslims of then and today are still confused about Imamat, and un-necessarily trying to defend Muawiah.